关于塑料袋的英语作文(字数100~120)

2023-01-27 06:48  阅读 51 次

塑料袋的历史

一个摄影师在暗房里的实验导致了最初的塑料的产生。亚历山大・帕克斯有许多爱好,摄影是其中之一。19世纪时,人们还不能够像今天这样购买现成的照相胶片和化学药品,必须经常自己制作需要的东西。所以每个摄影师同时也必须是一个化学家。

摄影中使用的材料之一是“胶棉”,它是一种“硝棉”溶液,亦即在酒精和醚中的硝酸盐纤维素溶液。当时它被用于把光敏的化学药品粘在玻璃上,来制作类似于今天照相胶片的同等物。

在19世纪50年代,帕克斯查看了处理胶棉的不同方法。一天,他试着把胶棉与樟脑混合。使他惊奇的是,混合后产生了一种可弯曲的硬材料。帕克斯称该物质为“帕克辛”,那便是最早的塑料。

帕克斯用“帕克辛”制作出了各类物品:梳子、笔、纽扣和珠宝印饰品。然而,帕克斯不大有商业意识,并且还在自己的商业冒险上赔了钱。20世纪时,人们开始挖掘塑料的新用途。几乎家庭里的所有用品都可以由某种塑料制造出来。

继续发展帕克斯的成果并从中获利就留给其他发明家去做了。约翰・韦斯利・海亚特这个来自纽约的印刷工在1868年看到了这个机会,当时一家制造台球的公司抱怨象牙短缺。海亚特改进了制造工序,并且给了“帕克辛”一个新名称―“赛璐珞”(假象牙―译注)。他从台球制造商那里得到了一个现成的市场,并且不久后就用塑料制作出各种各样的产品。

早期的塑料容易着火,这就限制了用它制造产品的范围。第一个能成功地耐高温的塑料是“贝克莱特”(即酚酣塑料―译注)。利奥 ・贝克兰德在1909年获得了该项专利。

1909年,美国的贝克兰首次合成了酚醛塑料。20世纪30年代,尼龙又问世了,被称为是“由煤炭、空气和水合成,比蜘蛛丝细,比钢铁坚硬,优于丝绸的纤维”。它们的出现为此后各种塑料的发明和生产奠定了基础。由于第二次世界大战中石油化学工业的发展,塑料的原料以石油取代了煤炭,塑料制造业也得到飞速的发展。

塑料是一种很轻的物质,用很低的温度加热就能使它变软,随心所欲地做成各种形状的东西。塑料制品色彩鲜艳,重量轻,不怕摔,经济耐用,它的问世不仅给人们的生活带来了诸多方便,也极大地推动了工业的发展。

然而,塑料的发明还不到100年,如果说当时人们为它们的诞生欣喜若狂,现在却不得不为处理这些充斥在生活中,给人类生存环境带来极大威胁的东西而煞费苦心了。

塑料是从石油或煤炭中提取的化学石油产品,一旦生产出来很难自然降解。塑料理在地下200年也不会腐烂降解,大量的塑料废弃物填埋在地下,会破坏土壤的通透性,使土壤板结,影响植物的生长。如果家畜误食了混入饲料或残留在野外的塑料,也会造成因消化道梗阻而死亡。

目前,中国塑料年产量为3O0万吨,消费量在600万吨以上。全世界塑料年产量为1亿吨,如果按每年15%的塑料废弃量计算,全世界年塑料废弃量就是1500万吨,中国的年塑料废弃量在100万吨以上,废弃塑料在垃圾中的比例占到40%,这样大量的废弃塑料作为垃圾被埋在地下,无疑给本来就缺乏的可耕种土地带来更大的压力。

塑料在给人们的生活带来方便的同时,也给环境带来了难以收拾的后患,人们把塑料给环境带来的灾难称为“白色污染”。

目前,很多国家都采取焚烧(热能源再生)或再加工制造(制品再生)的办法处理废弃塑料。这两种办法使废弃塑料得到再生利用,达到了节约资源的目的。但由于废弃塑料在焚烧或再加工时会产生对人体有害的气体,污染环境,所以可以说废弃塑料的处理至今仍是环保工作中令人头疼的一大难题。

The plastic bag history

A cameraman creation having led to initial plastic in experiment inside the dark room. That Alexander ・ Pakesi has a lot of hobby , film is one of which. People is not able to buy the ready-made photographic film and chemicals like this like today , self makes be obliged to often the thing needing when 19 centuries. Therefore every cameraman is simultaneous also must be a chemist. One of the material being put into use in film is a collodion , it is one kind of saltpetre cotton solution , the viz. is in nitrate cellulose solution in alcohol and ether. It was used photosensitive chemicals to be glued on glass at that time , was done equal photographic film today similar to making thing. In 19 centuries fifties,Pakesi has checked the method handling the collodion diversity. A day , he are trying blending the collodion and the camphor. Use his amazed being , blend have produced a kind of but curved hard queen material. Pakesi says that matter is Pakexin , that is the earliest plastic. Pakesi uses Pakexin to make having made the article of all kinds: The comb , pen , button and jewelry seal adorn a product. Pakesi has not been of great commerce mental consciousness but, has stood a loss of money and on the venture as early as self. When 20 centuries, people starts the use excavating the new of plastic. By some, kind of plastic makes almost all articles for use inside the family all can out. Continue developing Pakesi's achievement and earn profit out of right away leave for the inventor goes to have composed other. John ・ Wesley ・ Haiyate comes from the New York pressman so having seen this chance on 1868 , the company who one made a table tennis at that time complains about elephant's tusk shortage. Haiyate has improved fabrication working procedure , has given Pakexin (give exegesis or explanation in case that the elephant's tusk translates) a new name celluloid moreover. He has got a ready-made marketplace from table tennis manufacturer there, and has used plastic to make not too long after that right away making the all kinds of product. Model T plastic is easy to be on fire, have been restricting the range using it to make a product right now. The first being able to be able to bear the high temperature plastic successfully is that Beikelaite (is that phenol is to self's heart's content plastic translates notes). Leo ・ Beikelande has gained that patent on 1909.

In 1909, American Beikelan has composed phenol aldehyde plastic first. 1930's , the nylon have come out, fibre silk better than being be composed of coal , air and water , thin , harder than iron and steel than cobweb is called. The various plastic of queen invention sum produces their turn up for this purpose having establish a basis. The plastic raw material has substituted coal with petroleum , manufacturing industry has also got plastic since Second World War is hit by development of petrochemical industry, at full speed development. Plastic is one kind of very light matter , is therefore likely to make it deliquesce with very low temperature warmup, make up into various form thing arbitrarily. The plastic product color is bright-coloured , weight is not afraid to fall gently, economy is durable, not only its coming out having brought about a lot of development of the industry having gone to the lavatory , driving also tremendously for people's life. The plastic invention is less than but, 100 years , has no alternative handle these being full of the thing bringing extremely large threat to extremely large threat human being living environment in life, but have bestowed great care to but now if people was that their coming into being is jubilantly happy at that time. Plastic is from the chemistry petroleum products drawing in petroleum or coal, once producing from very difficult natural degradation coming out. The plastic reason also is not good in depraved degradation in ground for 200 years , waste fills large amount of plastic bury Tongtou that can destroy soil nature, makes soil hardened in ground,growth affecting plant's. If the cattle has eaten the plastic sneaking into feed or being left over in the open country by accident, also be able to bring about dying because of digestive tract obstruction.

At present, Chinese plastic annual output is 3 ten thousand tons of O0, amount of consumption above 6 million tons. The whole world plastic annual output is 100 million tons , secretly scheme against if 15%'s plastic abandons amounts according to every year, annual plastic of the whole world abandons amounts being 15 million tons , Chinese year plastic abandons amounts above 1 million tons , proportion in abandoning plastic in the rubbish accounts for to 40%, such great quantity's abandon plastic being buried as the rubbish in ground , bring bigger pressure to bigger pressure the land originally right away, being short of but plowing beyond doubt. Plastic brings about convenient at the same time in the life giving people , has also brought about the future trouble being difficult to punish for environment, people calls the disaster that plastic brings about to the environment white pollution . At present, many countries all adopts (the regeneration burning hot sources of energy) or the way processing fabrication (products regenerates's) again handles to abandon plastic. This two kinds way are made abandon plastic being regenerated make use of, have reached the purpose saving resource. Because abandoning plastic may produce the gas , the environment contaminating bad for the human body when burning or processing again , being able to say the treatment abandoning plastic is environmental protection so far still but in working make peopel one big difficult problems of headache

Plastic bags have found their way into a wide area of everyday life. They are applied in big supermarkets, ordinary shops, small stores and street markets. People put in plastic bags everything they buy. They no longer need to carry cloth bags, leather bags or basket bags with them when go shopping. Obviously it is very convenient for plastic bags to be used in people’s everyday life. They are also very cheap. They are usually offered free of charge.

However, plastic bags also bring us side effects. Some people throw away plastic bags causally. This causes the white pollution to our environment , which is very harmful because plastic bags can not disappear by natural decomposition. This is certainly not beneficial to our future.

People have to be careful with the use of plastic bags. They should make sure they put the sued plastic bags into the dustbin when they want to dispose of them. It also might be better for people to use the traditional cloth bags to hold the goods they buy instead of using plastic bags.

路过的啊

本文地址:https://www.ehuixue.com/217073.html
关注我们:微信公众号:扫描二维码慧学在线的微信号,公众号:********
版权声明:本文为原创文章,版权归 admin 所有,欢迎分享本文,转载请保留出处!

发表评论


表情